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Cipro is an antibiotic that fights infections caused by many different bacteria.
Ciprofloxacin is an antimicrobial agent of a wide spectrum of action of the group of fluoroquinolones. It has a bactericidal effect. It suppresses DNA gyrase and inhibits bacterial DNA synthesis. Ciprofloxacin is highly active against most gram-negative bacteria: Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Haemophilus influenzae, Escherichia coli, Shigella spp., Salmonella spp., Neisseria meningitidis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae. Active against Staphylococcus spp. (including strains producing and not producing penicillinase, methicillin-resistant strains), some strains of Enterococcus spp., Campylobacter spp., Legionella spp., Mycoplasma spp., Chlamydia spp., Mycobacterium spp. Ciprofloxacin is active against bacteria producing α-lactamases. Ureaplasma urealyticum, Clostridium difficile, Nocardia asteroides are resistant to ciprofloxacin. The action against Treponema pallidum is not well understood.
Infections and inflammatory diseases caused by microorganisms sensitive to ciprofloxacin:
- respiratory tract;
- ear, throat and nose;
- kidneys and urinary tract;
- digestive system (including mouth, teeth, jaws);
- gall bladder and biliary tract;
- skin integuments, mucous membranes and soft tissues;
- musculoskeletal system.
Cipro is indicated for the treatment of sepsis and peritonitis, as well as for the prevention and treatment of infections in patients with reduced immunity (with immunosuppressive therapy).
Do not take Cipro if you have any of the following diseases/conditions:
- period of breastfeeding;
- children and adolescents under 18 years of age;
- increased sensitivity to ciprofloxacin or other drugs from the group of fluoroquinolones;
- pseudomembranous colitis.
Dosage and administration
The dose of ciprofloxacin depends on the severity of the disease, the type of infection, the condition of the body, the age, weight and kidney function of the patient.
Usually recommended doses:
- uncomplicated diseases of the kidneys and urinary tract – 0.25 g, in complicated cases, 0.5 g 2 times a day;
- diseases of the lower respiratory tract of moderate severity – 0.25 g, in more severe cases, 0.5 g, 2 times a day;
- for the treatment of gonorrhea, a single dose of ciprofloxacin at a dose of 0.250-0.5 g is recommended;
- gynecological diseases, enteritis and colitis with a severe course and high fever, prostatitis, osteomyelitis – 0.5 g 2 times a day (for the treatment of banal diarrhea, you can use a dose of 0.25 g 2 times a day);
- other infections – 2 times a day, 0.5 g each;
- particularly severe, life-threatening, including streptococcal pneumonia, infections of bones and joints, septicemia, peritonitis – 2 times a day, 0.75 g.
The drug should be taken on an empty stomach, drinking plenty of fluids. Patients with severe renal impairment should be prescribed a half dose of the drug.
The duration of treatment depends on the severity of the disease, but treatment should always continue for at least two more days after the disappearance of the symptoms of the disease. Typically, the duration of treatment is 7-10 days.
- Digestive system: nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, abdominal pain, increased activity of hepatic transaminases, alkaline phosphatase, LDH, bilirubin, pseudomembranous colitis;
- Central nervous system: headache, dizziness, tiredness, sleep disturbances, nightmares, hallucinations, fainting, visual disturbances;
- Urinary system: crystalluria, glomerulonephritis, dysuria, polyuria, albuminuria, hematuria, a transient increase in serum creatinine;
- Hemopoietic system: eosinophilia, leukopenia, neutropenia, a change in the number of platelets;
- Cardiovascular system: tachycardia, cardiac arrhythmias, arterial hypotension;
- Allergic reactions: skin itching, urticaria, Quincke’s edema, Stevens-Johnson syndrome, arthralgia;
- Adverse reactions associated with chemotherapeutic action: candidiasis;
- Other: vasculitis.
The specific antidote is unknown. It is necessary to carefully monitor the patient’s condition, do gastric lavage, carry out the usual emergency measures, ensure an adequate flow of fluid. With the help of hemo- or peritoneal dialysis, only a small (less than 10%) amount of the drug can be withdrawn.
Interactions with other drugs
Avoid combining Cipro with the following drugs:
- antacids, as well as preparations containing aluminum, zinc, iron or magnesium ions.