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Yasmin is a low-dose monophasic oral contraceptive with anti-androgenic and antimineralocorticoid effects.
The contraceptive effect is achieved due to a number of factors. One of the most important is the suppression of ovulation. This birth control drug also changes the viscosity of cervical mucus. The endometrium remains not ready for egg implantation. As a result of increasing the viscosity of cervical mucus, the penetration of sperm into the uterine cavity is impossible.
Drospirenone has antimineralocorticoid properties. It can prevent weight gain and other symptoms associated with fluid retention (prevents the delay of Na + caused by estrogens, provides very good tolerance and has a positive effect on premenstrual syndrome). In combination with ethinyl estradiol, this medication improves the lipid profile and increases the concentration of HDL. It has antiandrogenic activity, which contributes to a decrease in acne formation and a decrease in the production of sebaceous glands. It does not affect the increase in the formation of sex hormone-binding globulin (inactivation of endogenous androgens) caused by ethinyl estradiol.
Drospirenone is deprived of any androgenic, estrogenic, mineralocorticoid and antimineralocorticoid properties. This, combined with antimineralocorticoid and antiandrogenic action, provides drospirenone with a biochemical and pharmacological profile similar to natural progesterone.
Like all combined oral contraceptives, it has a positive non-contraceptive effect: menstrual bleeding becomes less painful and shorter, which reduces the risk of anemia.
Yasmin is used as an oral contraceptive with a wide spectrum of action. The drug is used in the treatment of menstrual irregularities, as well as to facilitate the condition during the premenstrual syndrome. In addition, it can be prescribed for the treatment of skin diseases. A systematic intake of this birth control helps eliminate hormonal imbalances in the female body.
Dosage and administration
Yasmin should be taken daily for 28 or 30 days. It is strictly forbidden to take breaks in treatment since even a short withdrawal will not allow achieving the necessary pharmacological effect. For therapeutic purposes, the drug should be taken from the first day of the menstrual cycle or during the first 5 or 7 days. The pills are taken at one and the same time daily.
Mechanism of action
Oral contraceptive has an effect due to the content of ethinyl estradiol and drospirenone. Substances prevent conception due to the impact on several processes in the female body. This medication suppresses the peristalsis of the fallopian tubes for the egg not to leave the ovary.
In addition, this contraceptive drug contributes to the thickening of cervical mucus, making it impossible for sperm to penetrate the uterine cavity and move through the tubes. If individual cells nevertheless penetrated through the cervical canal and met with the egg, the drug affects the inner uterine layer, making attachment of the fertilized cell impossible.
Thanks to these effects, a woman has only a minimal chance of becoming pregnant while taking Yasmin.
The medicine is absorbed quite quickly in the digestive system, penetrate into the systemic circulation. Bioavailability is 80%. The medication has a therapeutic effect in some pathologies of the reproductive system.
- Thrombosis (venous and arterial) at present or in history (including deep vein thrombosis, pulmonary embolism, myocardial infarction, cerebrovascular disorders);
- Conditions preceding thrombosis (including transient ischemic attacks, angina pectoris ) at present and in history;
- Diabetes mellitus with vascular complications;
- The presence of severe or multiple risk factors for venous or arterial thrombosis, including complicated lesions of the valvular apparatus of the heart, atrial fibrillation;
- Uncontrolled hypertension;
- Complicated surgery with prolonged immobilization;
- Smoking over the age of 35 years;
- Liver failure, severe liver disease at present or in the anamnesis, liver tumors (benign or malignant), including in the anamnesis;
- Severe or acute renal failure;
- Hormone-dependent malignant diseases of the genitals or mammary glands;
- Vaginal bleeding of unknown origin;
- Infectious and parasitic diseases: rarely – candidiasis.
- Blood and lymphatic system: rarely – anemia, thrombocytopenia.
- Immune system: rarely – allergic reactions; frequency unknown – hypersensitivity.
- Metabolism and nutrition: rarely – increased appetite, anorexia, hyperkalemia, hyponatremia.
- Mental health: often – emotional lability, depression, decreased libido; infrequently – nervousness, drowsiness; rarely – anorgasmia, insomnia.
- Nervous system: often – headache; infrequently – dizziness, paresthesia; rarely – vertigo, tremor.
- The organ of vision: rarely – conjunctivitis, the dry mucous membrane of the eyes.
- Cardiovascular system: often – migraine; infrequently – varicose veins, increased blood pressure; rarely tachycardia, phlebitis, nosebleeds, fainting, venous thromboembolism, arterial thromboembolism.
- Digestive tract: often – nausea; infrequently – abdominal pain, vomiting, dyspepsia, flatulence, gastritis, diarrhea; rarely – bloating, a feeling of heaviness in the abdomen, a hiatal hernia, candidiasis of the oral cavity, constipation, dry mouth.
- Liver and biliary tract: rarely – biliary dyskinesia, cholecystitis.
- Skin and subcutaneous tissues: infrequently – acne, itching, rash; rarely – chloasma, eczema, alopecia, acne dermatitis, dry skin, erythema nodosum, hypertrichosis, striae, contact dermatitis, photodermatitis, skin nodules; frequency unknown – erythema multiforme.
- Musculoskeletal system: infrequently – back pain, pain in the limbs, muscle cramps.
- Genitals and mammary gland: often – pain in the mammary glands, metrorrhagia, lack of menstrual bleeding; infrequently – vaginal candidiasis, pelvic pain, enlargement of the mammary glands, fibrocystic masses in the mammary gland, spotting/bleeding from the genital tract, secretions from the genital tract, hot flashes with sensation of heat, vaginitis, painful menstrual bleeding, ample menstrual bleeding, dryness of the vaginal mucosa, pathological results of the Papanicolaou test; rarely – dyspareunia, vulvovaginitis, postcoital bleeding, withdrawal bleeding, breast hyperplasia, neoplasm in the mammary gland, cervical polyp, endometrial atrophy, ovarian cyst, uterine enlargement.
- Laboratory and instrumental data: infrequently – weight gain; rarely – weight loss.
- Other: infrequently – asthenia, increased sweating, edema (generalized edema, peripheral edema, facial edema); rarely – malaise.
No serious overdose violations have been reported. Based on the total experience with the use of combined oral contraceptives, symptoms that may occur with an overdose of active tablets are: nausea, vomiting, spotting, or metrorrhagia.
Treatment: there is no specific antidote. Symptomatic treatment should be carried out.